This article came from some interactions I had back in May last year in an open source project. The specifics are unimportant, but I felt were an opportunity to share some insight from my experiences as a maintainer.
The audience for this article is mostly people who are new contributors to open source, who aren’t as familiar with the “tribal knowledge” or unspoken customs that occur in open source communities. The first interactions are often the most important, and I want to help new contributors navigate their way through this world and hopefully get some rewards out of their experiences with open source.
So what happened?
I’m omitting any names and details from this because I don’t fault the person on the other side of this. I want to use this as a learning experience for those who are new to open source communities.
The timeline of events for one of the projects I maintain went like this:
- a new contributor sent a pull request to a project I maintain to add a bunch of changes, along with a brief summary about the change
- I get a notification, which falls into the endless pile of notifications I have to manage
- 10 days later, I finally get a chance to look at it properly
- I close the pull request with a message explaining why I didn’t feel it was a suitable change
- 5 hours later, I get an email from someone (who I believe was the pull request author, I’m not 100% sure) asking to re-evaluate my decision
At first glance this might not seem so interesting, but the email itself talked about a bunch of things that were fascinating to hear after-the-fact.
Here were the key points of the email:
We need this change in before [our launch]
Deadlines. I’ve got them. You’ve got them. Everyone has them, even the ones they choose to ignore until you feel them *whoosh* past. But we’re talking about a deadline that was several months away, and wasn’t mentioned in the pull request itself.
We already reviewed the changes internally [in $company].
This is also great to hear, but this is news to me again. How was it reviewed? How did you come to make the various decisions made?
It’s great to hear large companies using the things I work on, and it’s great to see them engage more directly with the project - either through contributions, feedback or other sorts of participation. In this situation there were some differences between how I was maintaining the project and what was proposed in the pull request. I tried to make those decisions clear when I closed the pull request, but maybe I can do better in the future with some documentation improvements.
[The teams] are waiting for [the pull request to be merged] to pull their changes.
You may think my review is a blocker on your job, but it shouldn’t be. There are plenty of ways to be able to work with your changes independent of the pull request review and result. I’ll expand on this later.
Our telemetry [shows some interesting insight about our audience].
This is great and all but again, it wasn’t mentioned in the pull request. I’m making decisions with the best information I have on hand at the time.
The contents of the email left me bemused, exasperated and a bit annoyed. It got to me enough that I couldn’t put it aside and focus on other things, as it contained plenty of information that would have been helpful while I was reviewing the change.
I made a joke on Twitter about not being a mind-reader, and then proceeded to unpack this whole interaction as a Twitter thread as it was a great opportunity for me to think more about it. This draft has been sitting on my machine for several months, so I’m glad Mark Gravell wrote a blog post about a related topic recently that reminded me of this.
Proposing a change to a project
So you’ve been working with a project but it would be so much better with just a small change to some feature. You’ve got the code written and it works great for you, and you also think it’s something other people would benefit from. Before you go and open that pull request, here are some things to think about.
Who are you and how did you find this project?
After working in open source projects for many years it all kind of blurs together, and I’ve come across countless pull requests with just a basic title. Or an incorrect title. Or a minimal description. Or no description at all.
It’s pretty easy to take a couple of minutes here and boost your chances of landing the change by writing a good introduction to the pull request. Even if you’re not new to open source, or are already a contributor, providing context behind the change will be very valuable in the future.
If this is the first time you’re submitting a pull request to a project (or anywhere for that matter), introduce yourself. Tell the maintainer about how you came across the project, how you’ve gotten use out of their work, and where the inspiration for your proposal came from.
This might seem like bragging a bit, but it’s a great help to the maintainer to understand the context behind a change. As much as people say “the code is all that matter”, that’s most often the easy part. The motivation for a change is what’s really important here - elaborating on the problem, how the proposed solution came to be, what alternatives were tried and discarded, what unknowns there are about adopting the solution. All of these things matter and help with reviewing the change.
You’re selling something, even if you don’t believe you are
Once you’re setup to contribute to a project, submitting a pull request is hopefully a straight-forward task. Make some commts, add some comments, push, create the pull request, voila. But consider things from the other side - you’re asking someone else to accept your changes into their project.
This is not a small thing. Open source projects of all sizes have to deal with supporting their current userbase, and your change is something on top of that. When you’re proposing a change, make sure you think about how it benefits the project.
- bugfixes are easy to propose, but if the changes required are complex it might take a bit of discussion to ensure everyone is in agreement and that it doesn’t introduce any unexpected side-effects elsewhere
- documentation improvements are very underrated, and as long as they are applied in the right spot (some documentation is generated using tooling) and that a find-and-replace found all the places that needed to be changed, these can be much easier to approve
- changes to APIs should be thoughtful and deliberate. Was this API already in use? How will changing the API impact existing users of the library?
You may think it’s minor, but it may be more complicated
Change is almost certain with any sort of software artifact, and evolving the software to add features, address defects, improve performance or make it more flexible are all things that maintainers should strive for. But change also need to be managed while keeping the software in a working state. This is typically done by using tests to verify the behaviour of the software, but there are many cases where tests aren’t enough of a confidence net and need to fall back to a manual review.
This is a topic that I don’t want to dig too deep into as it’s already a lengthy post, but some cases I can think of that are relevant to a maintainer of a project that go beyond tests:
- a bugfix which requires changing lots of code - Is there a smaller version of the bugfix that can be proposed? Are there architectural changes or test coverage improvements that can help give confidence that we haven’t broken the software?
- adding functionality - it could be something the maintainer doesn’t see as valuable to include for everyone, something they feel requires a lot of work from them to maintain, or something they don’t believe fits with the existing functionality provided by the software
- a behaviour change to existing functionality - What’s the benefit of this new behaviour over the existing behaviour? Are there risks for others who are relying on the existing behaviour? How should users of the library handle this change when upgrading?
There are plenty of ways to manage changes in software, and the maintainer probably has some opinions on how they want to handle this, so you may need to work within their situation if you want to see your changes merged.
This might not have a happy ending
These are a lot of words for me to essentially detail my feeling that software development is more of a human process than it is a technical process. The code is often the easy part, and while working software is the end result it’s still very much reliant on all the work of humans collaborating on the software to achieve this result that we easily forget about.
I’ve had my share of discussions and contributions to projects declined, and often these situations are learning experiences for me:
- by sharing my insights and interacting with the maintainer I get a better understanding about the software that isn’t often covered in documentation
- proposing contributions in a public forum allows others to see the work, and potentially learn things themselves
- collaborating with the maintainer and other reviewers about a proposed contribution could lead to a better solution for my problem, even if it doesn’t get accepted by tha maintainer
So it didn’t work out…
In the original Twitter thread I proposed several different options for being able to continue to use your changes in the event they were declined by the maintainer.
Please confirm the license on the project permits these, as I cannot guarantee every project is using a sufficiently-permissive license and may require you to also make your changes public.
- for source code you are consuming directly, forking the repository to a location you control and linking that as a submodule into your project means that you can continue to use your customizations while the upstream project evolves
- if the repository is too complex to use as a submodule in the main project, building the source with the patched changes in version control and then using the compiled binaries is also an option. This guide on creating and applying patch files is a good introduction for working with Git repositories
- if the software is distributed via a package manager, you may be able to fork the package and publish it under a namespace you control. NPM supports scopes as a first-class concept, and other package managers may support unofficial ways to create branded namespaces. This is a simpler than working with the source directly as you can use typical development tools to manage dependencies, and it becomes easier for others to also consume your version of the project.
Each option on this list may look unappealing to you because it feels like more work, and that’s because maintenance of open source projects is an ongoing burden, and the pain is acute for small or solo projects that accidentally get successful and find themselves with a lot of users.
We can automate things to save time on repetitive tasks like updating dependencies and testing proposed changes, but most of the time I believe there needs to be a human involved to ensure the changes move the project in the right direction.